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Authors should read the editorial policy and publication ethics before submitting their manuscripts. Authors should also use the appropriate reporting guidelines in preparing their manuscripts.

Research Ethics

Studies involving human subjects should be conducted according to the World Medical Association (WMA) Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects.

Studies involving non human animals should follow appropriate ethical guidelines such as the Animal Welfare ActThe Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act (Amendment) Order 1993The EU parliament directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes,  ARRP policies and guidelines, etc.

Reporting guideline

Responsible reporting of research studies, which includes a complete, transparent, accurate and timely account of what was done and what was found during a research study, is an integral part of good research and publication practice and not an optional extra.

Manuscript Preparation

The type of article should determine the manuscript structure. However, the general structure for articles should follow the IMRAD structure.


The title phrase should be brief.
List authors’ full names (first-name, middle-name, and last-name).
Affiliations of authors (department and institution).
Emails and phone numbers

Abstract and Keywords

The abstract should be less than 300 words. Abstract may be presented either in unstructured or structured format. The keywords should be less than 10.


Abbreviation should be used only for non standard and very long terms.

The Introduction

The statement of the problem should be stated in the introduction in a clear and concise manner.

Materials and methods

Materials and methods should be clearly presented to allow the reproduction of the experiments.

Results and discussion

Results and discussion maybe combined into a single section. Results and discussion may also be presented separately if necessary.

Disclosure of conflict of interest

Authors should disclose all financial/relevant interest that may have influenced the study.


Acknowledgement of people, funds etc should be brief.

Tables and figures

Tables should be kept to a minimum.

Tables should have a short descriptive title.

The unit of measurement used in a table should be stated.

Tables should be numbered consecutively.

Tables should be organized in Microsoft Word or Excel spreadsheet.

Figures/Graphics should be prepared in GIF, TIFF, JPEG or PowerPoint.

Tables and Figures should be appropriately cited in the manuscript.


References should be listed in an alphabetical order at the end of the paper. Links to referenced articles should be stated wherever available.  Journal names are abbreviated according to the ISSN List of Title Word Abbreviations, see  Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.


Adu-Gyamfi JJ, Ito O, Yoneyama T, Katayama K (1997). Nitrogen management and biological nitrogen fixation in sorghum/pigeon pea intercropping on Alfisols of the semi-arid tropics. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 43:1061 – 1066.

Tyndall JA, Okoye V, Elumelu F, Dahiru A, Pariya HB (2012) Vitamin A and Iron Deficiency in Pregnant Women, Lactating Mothers and their Infants in Adamawa State, Nigeria: a prospective cohort study. Am. J. Food Nutr. 2:14-20.

Quamruzzaman AKM, MA Rashid., S Ahmed and M Moniruzzaman (2009). Genetic Divergence Analysis in Eggplant. Bangladesh J. Agric. Res., 34(4): 705-712.

Acceptance Certificate

Prudent Journals issue Acceptance Certificate to Authors for manuscripts that have been reviewed and accepted for publication by an editor.

Payment of Article Publication Charge

Once a manuscript has been accepted, the corresponding author will be contacted to make the necessary payment of the Article Publication Charge. We routinely offer waiver for students and authors from low-income countries. Please contact the help Assistant via this email address:


A proof is sent to the corresponding author before publication. Authors are advised to read the proof and correct minor typographical or grammatical errors. Authors should promptly return proofs to the editorial office through:


Once proofs are received at the editorial office, the manuscripts are usually included in the next issue of the journal. The article will thereafter be published on the journal’s website.

Publication Notification

After the article is made available on the journal’s website, a publication notice is sent to the corresponding author with links to the issue and article.